Wide crosses of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) reveal good disease resistance, yield stability, and industrial quality across mediterranean sites
Meryem Zaïm, Khaoula El Hassouni, Fernanda Gamba, Abdelkarim Filali-Maltouf, Bouchra Belkadi, Ayed Sourour, Ahmed Amri, Miloudi Nachit, Mouna Taghouti, Filippo M. Bassi, Field Crops Research 214 (2017) 219-227 journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/fcr
Durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) breeders over the past century have increased the productivity and resilience of this crop via strong selection applied to genes controlling agronomically important traits. Along this process, some of the primitive genetic diversity of this species was lost. A debate exists on whether or not some of the original primitive diversity should be re-introgress into modern germplasm in order to facilitate new improvements. Here, the possible negative effects of re-introducing primitive diversity were assessed by comparing the performances of three ICARDA elites and four commercial cultivars against seventeen durum wheat wide crosses, generated by hybridization of elites and Triticum dicoccoides, T. araraticum, and Aegilops speltoides. The material was grown in Lebanon, Algeria and 10 environments in Morocco. Tested under natural inoculation
against Lr14a virulent strains of leaf rust as well as tan spot races 4 and 6, revealed that wide crosses had significantly higher levels of resistance. Further, the use of a selection index that combined selection for grain yield potential and stability revealed that 14 wide crosses performed better than any of the elites or cultivars. Finally, testing quality traits at four sites revealed that wide crosses had significantly higher grain size and protein content than the other two germplasm classes, while no significant difference could be observed for gluten strength. Only in the case of yellow pigment, an industrially important trait for durum wheat, one variety (‘Tomouh’) outperformed all other classes, even though wide crosses lines also achieved good scores. Hence, it was not possible to identify any negative drag in the use of wide crosses for improving durum wheat modern germplasm, with the partial exception of yellow pigment.
Keywords: Durum wheat, Wild relatives, Tan spot, Leaf rust, GxE, Yellow pigment, Gluten strength, Protein content
Elucidation of functional chemical groups responsible of compost phytotoxicity using solid-state 13 C NMR spectroscopy under different initial C/ N ratios
Khalid Azim, Youssef Faissal, Brahim Soudi, Claude Perissol, Sevastianos Roussos, Imane Thami Alami, Environmental Science and Pollution Research llttps://doi.org/10.1007/s 11356-017.0704-9
More than 1 million tons of fresh organic wastes is produced in the Souss-Massa region in Morocoo. Tomato organic residues represent more than 25% of the total organic wastes and are deposited in uncontrolled landfills. Thus, composting can representes valuable and pertinent solution to this environmental problem. The objectives of this experiment are to identify the potential functional groups responsible for compost phytotoxicity and to determine the optimum initial carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) for maximum recovery of tomato residues. The experiment consisted of the variation of the initial ON ratios (25, 30, 35, and 40) using mixtures of different raw materials (tomato residues, melon residues. olive mill pomace, and sheep manure). Physiocochemical parameters (pH, electricity conductivity, C/N ratio, and humic acid/fulvic acid ratio) were determined and spectroscopie analyses (UV-vis and NMR-13C) were performed during the composting process along with quality parameters (germination and phytotoxicity tests) at the end. The results showed that the compost with the initial C/N ratio of 35 is the most humified with the least phytotoxic effect. The germination and phytotoxicity tests were negatively corelated with the methoxyl/N-alkyl.C ratio and O-alkyl.C. These two functional groups are probably the origin of phytotoxicity expression in compost quality tests. Thus, a simple and precise quality test could be performed to evaluate directly the phytotoxicity and maturity of compost.
Keywords: NMR-13C, Tomato residue, Compost, Phytoxicity, C/N ratio
Assessment of groat nutrional aspect of new developed oat hexaploid lines through interspecific cross with the tetraploid oat A. Murphyi
N. Saidi , A. Hilali, N. Shaimi, C. Al Faiz, G. Ladizinsky, IASET: Journal of General Engineering and Technology (IASET: JGET) ISSN(P): Applied; ISSN(E): Applied Vol. 1, Issue 1 Jan - Jun 2016; 25-34 © IASET
Attempts have been made, to develop high groat protein content lines of hexaploid oat through hybridization work aiming the transfer the tetraploid oat species A. murphyi’s high groat protein content into three Moroccan common oat cultivars. Derivative hybrid lines were subjected to pedigree selection, which yielded ten lines showing a good agronomic performance. Since the derivative lines will be conceived for human consumption, selected lines were assessedor groat protein content. Protein analysis revealed that this trait was improved for the developed lines from 1 to 18% in comparison to their hexaploid parents, respectively.
Keywords: Oats, Tetraploid Oat A. Murphyi, Common OatA. Sativa, Hybridisation, Groat Protein Content